Volume 6, Issue 1, June 2019, Page: 1-10
The Qualification of the Additively Manufactured Parts in the Aviation Industry
Tamer Saracyakupoglu, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ostim Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Received: Jul. 7, 2019;       Accepted: Jul. 27, 2019;       Published: Aug. 13, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajae.20190601.11      View  125      Downloads  59
Abstract
The aviation is a highly engineered industry. It has precise manufacturing requirements. Because of these requirements, the aviation has been forced to be a pioneer for implementation of novel manufacturing techniques such as Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and newly-developed materials such as carbon fiber composites. These technologies and materials were firstly adopted by the aviation industry. Many processes and materials were used by other sectors such as automotive, ship construction and white goods etc. after the aviation industry used those as regular ones. On the other hand, the aviation industry is a booming sector because it is leveraged by increasing passenger traffic. Passenger traffic projections show that the aviation industry will continuously expand. Naturally, this expansion will attract many companies into the aviation industry and therefore attraction will conclude a fiercer competition environment in the aviation industry. At the conclusion, the companies in the aviation industry will look for implementation of novel technologies since they will not want to fall behind their competitors. On the other hand, the airworthiness authorities always keep their decision and regulation maker position while the companies are the followers. It can be put forward that the most difficult side of the implementation of novel technologies into aviation industry is to get along with the strict rules and regulations which are put by international and national airworthiness authorities. In this context, the question of how to qualify the additively manufactured parts (AMPs) is waiting for the answer. The additive manufacturing (AM) is a strong process which has been implemented into aviation industry rapidly while the qualification and certification processes still have many challenges. This paper provides the pathway and the steps of qualification for additively manufactured parts (AMPs) besides the categorization of AM technologies and the impact of weight reduction over flight operation cost.
Keywords
Additive Manufacturing (AM), Aviation Industry, Weight Reduction, Qualification, Certification
To cite this article
Tamer Saracyakupoglu, The Qualification of the Additively Manufactured Parts in the Aviation Industry, American Journal of Aerospace Engineering. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-10. doi: 10.11648/j.ajae.20190601.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Dipaola M., Wodajo M. F. 3D Printing in Orthopaedic Surgery, 2019, Elsevier, UK, 2019, pp 4.
[2]
Allen, J. An Investigation into the Comparative Costs of Additive Manufacture vs. Machine from Solid for Aero Engine Parts. Manufacturing Technology Rolls-Royce plc, Unclassified Report, UK, 2006, pp 1.
[3]
Garcia-Colomo A., Wood D., Martina F., Williams S. W., A comparison framework to support the selection of the best additive manufacturing process for specific aerospace applications, International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing, Underscience Publishers, UK, 2019, pp 2.
[4]
Barz A., Buer T., Haasis H.-D., A Study on the Effects of Additive Manufacturing on the Structure of Supply Networks, International Federation of Automatic Control, Elsevier, UK, 2016, pp 4.
[5]
Deloitte University Press, Additive manufacturing takes flight, 3D opportunity in aerospace and defense, USA, 2014, pp 4.
[6]
Jenkinson Lloyd R., Simpkin P., Rhodes D., Civil Jet Aircraft Design, Arnold A member of the Hodder Headline Group, UK, 1999, pp 320.
[7]
Ferjan C., Airline Operational Cost Task Force (AOCTF), Airline Cost Management Group (ACMG), Airline Cost Conference, Swiss, August 26-27, 2014, pp 12.
[8]
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Capacity and Efficiency Report, 2016–2030 Global Air Navigation Plan, 2016, pp 7.
[9]
ICAO Journal, Issue 2, Strengthening Regional Safety Oversight, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2018, pp 11.
[10]
IATA, Forecast Predicts 8.2 billion Air Travelers in 2037, www.iata.org/pressroom/pr/Pages/2018-10-24-02.aspx, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[11]
Mansor M. R., Nurfaizey A. H., Tamaldin N., Nordin M. N. A., Natural fiber polymer composites: utilization in aerospace engineering, In: Biomass, Biopolymer-Based Materials, and Bioenergy: Construction, Biomedical, and other Industrial Applications, Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, UK, 2019, pp 220.
[12]
AMFG, Thinking Big: 4 Impressive Applications of Large-Scale 3D Printing, amfg.ai/2019/04/02/thinking-big-4-impressive-applications-of-large-scale-3d-printing, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[13]
Pratt & Whitney Partners with University of Connecticut to Advance Additive Manufacturing Research, additivemanufacturingtoday.com/pratt-whitney-partners-with-university-of-connecticut-to-advance-additive-manufacturing-research, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[14]
GE Reveals How Greg Morris Created the 3D Printed Nozzle for the LEAP Jet Engine, www.3dprintingmedia.network/ge-reveals-greg-morris-created-3d-printed-nozzle-leap-jet-engine/, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[15]
New manufacturing milestone: 30,000 additive fuel nozzles, www.ge.com/additive/blog/new-manufacturing-milestone-30000-additive-fuel-nozzles, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[16]
3D printing: Mind Meld: How GE And A 3D-Printing Visionary Joined Forces, www.ge.com/reports/mind-meld-ge-3d-printing-visionary-joined-forces/, last accessed: 05th July 2019.
[17]
GE9X; World’s First Plant to Print Jet Engine Nozzles in Mass Production, www.ge.com/reports/post/91763815095/worlds-first-plant-to-print-jet-engine-nozzles-in/, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[18]
Gorelik M., Additive Manufacturing for Reactor Materials and Components Public Meeting, November 28-29, 2017, North Bethesda, MD, USA, pp 35: 8.
[19]
EOS and Etihad Airways Engineering set to expand industrial 3D printing capabilities, www.eos.info/press/eos-and-etihad-airways-engineering-set-to-expand-industrial-3d-printing-capabilities, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[20]
Airbus Bridges the Gap with 3D Printing, www.materialise.com/en/press-releases/airbus-bridges-gap-3d-printing, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[21]
Airbus and SIAEC in corporate MRO Joint Venture in Singapore, www.airbus.com/newsroom/press-releases/en/2016/10/airbus-and-siaec-incorporate-mro-joint-venture-in-singapore.html, last accessed: 06th July 2019.
[22]
Stratasys Direct Manufacturing Selected by Airbus to 3D Print Polymer Serial Flying A350 XWB Parts, www.investors.stratasys.com/news-releases/news-release-details/stratasys-direct-manufacturing-selected-airbus-3d-print-polymer, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[23]
"Game-changer" to aid in F-35 production, www.thefabricator.com/blog/game-changer-to-aid-in-f-35-production, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[24]
Sarat S, Yifan LV, Hewitt A, Chalk R., Thomas W and Jordison D, Additive Manufacturing for the Aircraft Industry: A Review, Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering, 2019, Spain, pp 11.
[25]
National Network For Manufacturing Innovation Program Annual Report, Executive Office of the President National Science and Technology Council Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office, USA, February 2016, pp 12.
[26]
Renton rolls out 47th 737 built at new 47-per-month rate, www.boeing.com/company/about-bca/washington/737-rate-increase-07-28-17.page, last accessed: 04th July 2019.
[27]
Boeing, Commercial Market Report, 2018-2037, USA, 2018, pp 3.
[28]
Airbus, Global Market Forecast, Global Networks Global Citizens, 2018-2037, France, 2018, pp 6.
[29]
COMAC releases Market Forecast Report (2018-2037), www.english.comac.cc/news/latest/201811/14/t20181114_6610546.shtml, last accessed: 07th July 2019.
[30]
Bombardier, Commercial Aircraft, 2017-2036 Market Forecast, Canada, 2018, pp 6.
[31]
Embraer, Market Outlook Report 2018-2037, Brazil, 2018, pp 6.
[32]
ATR, Turboprop Market Forecast 2018-2037, France, 2018, pp 6.
[33]
Ceruti A., Marzorca P., Liverani A., Bil C., Maintenance in Aeronautics in an Industry 4.0 Context: The Role of Augmented Reality and Additive Manufacturing, Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, Elsevier, UK, 2019, pp 5.
[34]
Gudmundsson S., General Aviation Aircraft Design, Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier, UK, 2014, pp 135-136.
[35]
Raymer P. D., Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, USA, 1992, pp 14.
[36]
ASTM, Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Designation: F2792 − 12a, USA, 2013, pp 1-2.
[37]
What is Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM)?, www.farinia.com/additive-manufacturing/3d-technique/additive-layer-manufacturing, last accessed: 04th June 2019.
[38]
Additive Manufacturing Technologies: An Overview, www.3dhubs.com/knowledge-base/additive-manufacturing-technologies-overview, last accessed: 07th June 2019.
[39]
Kushan M., Additive Manufacturing of Polymer Matrix Composites. In: Aircraft Technology, Intechopen, 2018, pp 147.
[40]
Despeisse M., Ford S., The Role of Additive Manufacturing in Improving Resource Efficiency and Sustainability, In: Advances in Production Management Systems, Innovative Production Management Towards Sustainable Growth, IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2015, Tokyo, Japan, September 7–9, 2015, Proceedings, Part II, pp 131.
[41]
Badiru A., Valencia V. V., Liu D., Additive Manufacturing Handbook, Product Development for the Defense Industry, Taylor and Francis Group, USA, 2017, pp 272.
[42]
Tsai W. H., Chang Y. C., Lin S. J., Chen H. C., Chu P. Y., (2014). A green approach to the weight reduction of aircraft cabins, Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, UK, 2014, pp 71.
[43]
Lyons B., Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace; Examples and Research Outlook, National Academy of Engineering, September 19th, 2011, pp 3.
[44]
Froes F., Boyer R., Additive Manufacturing for the Aerospace Industry, Elsevier, UK, 2019, pp 43.
[45]
Frazier W. E., McMichael J., Scheck C., Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution, Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Magazine, USA, 2016, pp 15.
[46]
Defence IQ, Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace, Defence & Space, Trends and Analysis, UK, 2016, pp 5.
[47]
GE Aviation, The FAA Cleared the First 3D Printed Part to Fly in a Commercial Jet Engine from GE, www.ge.com/reports/post/116402870270/the-faa-cleared-the-first-3d-printed-part-to-fly-2/, last accessed: 07th June 2019.
[48]
CFM LEAP-1C integrated propulsion system achieves joint EASA / FAA certification, www.safran-electronics-defense.com/video/2181, last accessed: 04th June 2019.
[49]
Summary Report: Joint Federal Aviation Administration–Air Force Workshop on Qualification/Certification of Additively Manufactured Parts, USA, June 2016, pp 56.
[50]
Code of Federal Regulations, Federal Aviation Administration, Title 14, Title 14 Aeronautics and Space Parts 1-59, Section 25, Subpart D, Subsection 25.605, USA, Revised 2014, pp 425.
[51]
European Union Aviation Safety Agency, Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance For Large Rotorcraft, 17 September 2018, pp 34.
Browse journals by subject